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Certificates

Pode has the ability to generate and bind self-signed certificates (for dev/testing), as well as the ability to bind existing certificates for HTTPS.

There are 8 ways to setup HTTPS on Add-PodeEndpoint:

  1. Supplying just the -Certificate, which is the path to files such as a .cer or .pem file.
  2. Supplying both the -Certificate and -CertificatePassword, which is the path to a .pfx file and its password.
  3. Supplying both the -Certificate and -CertificateKey, which is the paths to certificate/key PEM file pairs.
  4. Supplying all of -Certificate, -CertificateKey, and -CertificatePassword, which is the paths to certificate/key PEM file pairs and the password for an encrypted key.
  5. Supplying a -CertificateThumbprint for a certificate installed at Cert:\CurrentUser\My on Windows.
  6. Supplying a -CertificateName for a certificate installed at Cert:\CurrentUser\My on Windows.
  7. Supplying -X509Certificate of type X509Certificate.
  8. Supplying the -SelfSigned switch, to generate a quick self-signed X509Certificate.

Note: for 5. and 6. you can change the certificate store used by supplying -CertificateStoreName and/or -CertificateStoreLocation.

Usage

File

PFX

To bind a certificate PFX file, you use the -Certificate parameter, along with the -CertificatePassword parameter for the PFX certificate. The following example supplies the path to some .pfx to enable HTTPS support:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8090 -Protocol Https -Certificate './cert.pfx' -CertificatePassword 'Hunter2'
}

PEM

Pode has support for binding certificate/key PEM file pairs, on PowerShell 7+ this works out-of-the-box. However, for PowerShell 5/6 you are required to have OpenSSL installed.

To bind a certificate/key PEM file pairs generated via LetsEncrypt or OpenSSL, you supply their paths to the -Certificate and -CertificateKey parameters.

For example, if you generate the certificate/key using the following:

openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 365 -nodes

Then your endpoint would be created as:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8090 -Protocol Https -Certificate './cert.pem' -CertificateKey './key.pem'
}

However, if you generate the certificate/key and encrypt the key with a passphrase:

openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout key.pem -out cert.pem -days 365

Then the endpoint is created as follows:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8090 -Protocol Https -Certificate './cert.pem' -CertificateKey './key.pem' -CertificatePassword '<passphrase>'
}

Depending on how you generated the certificate, especially if you used the above openssl, you might have to install the certificate to your local certificate store for it to be trusted. If you're using Invoke-WebRequest or Invoke-RestMethod on PowerShell 6+ you can supply the -SkipCertificateCheck switch.

Thumbprint

On Windows only, you can use a certificate that is installed at Cert:\CurrentUser\My using its thumbprint:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8090 -Protocol Https -CertificateThumbprint '2A623A8DC46ED42A13B27DD045BFC91FDDAEB957'
}

Note: You can change the certificate store used by supplying -CertificateStoreName and/or -CertificateStoreLocation.

Name

On Windows only, you can use a certificate that is installed at Cert:\CurrentUser\My using its subject name:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8090 -Protocol Https -CertificateName '*.example.com'
}

Note: You can change the certificate store used by supplying -CertificateStoreName and/or -CertificateStoreLocation.

X509

The following will instead create an X509Certificate, and pass that to the endpoint instead:

$cert = [System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]::new('./certs/example.cer')
Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8443 -Protocol Https -X509Certificate $cert

Self-Signed

If you are developing/testing a site on HTTPS then Pode can generate and bind quick self-signed certificates. To do this you can pass the -SelfSigned switch:

Start-PodeServer {
    Add-PodeEndpoint -Address * -Port 8443 -Protocol Https -SelfSigned
}

You might get a warning in the browser about the certificate, and this is fine. If you're using Invoke-WebRequest or Invoke-RestMethod on PowerShell 6+ you can supply the -SkipCertificateCheck switch.

SSL Protocols

The default allowed SSL protocols are SSL3 and TLS1.2 (or just TLS1.2 on MacOS), but you can change these to any of: SSL2, SSL3, TLS, TLS11, TLS12, TLS13. This is specified in your server.psd1 configuration file:

@{
    Server = @{
        Ssl= @{
            Protocols = @('TLS', 'TLS11', 'TLS12')
        }
    }
}
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